Securing a Web Hidden Service


Quick guide on how to preserve a .onion anonymity

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While browsing the darknet (Onion websites), it’s quite stunning to see the number of badly configured Hidden Services that will leak directly or indirectly the underlying clearnet IP address. Thus canceling the server anonymity protection that can offer Tor Hidden Services.

Here are a few rules you should consider following before setting up a Onion-only website. This guide covers both Apache and Nginx.

 

1) Listen to localhost only

Don’t let anyone reach your Onion web application through the clearnet. Plain and simple. Your web server should only listen to 127.0.0.1 so that uniquely the Tor daemon can connect to it. If you can’t listen to localhost (for whatever reasons), use a god damn firewall (iptables/nftables) to prevent any leak or — at the very least — make sure the default virtual host isn’t redirecting to your Onion application.

The reasons why you shouldn’t be accessible on clearnet are scanners. Scanners from Shodan or Censys (or even Google) are constantly scanning all the IPv4 public space (what we can call 0.0.0.0/0) and will scan and index your server as well. You’ll be easily uncloaked if scanners find matching HTML content of your website (see examples below).

On Apache, change /etc/apache2/ports.conf so that it contains:

Listen 127.0.0.1:80

On Nginx, you should add a listen statement in the /etc/nginx/nginx.conf file, (inside a sever section):

listen 127.0.0.1:80;

2) Disable directory listing

“Directory listing” or “directory indexing” is a known plague, even for clearnet websites. It’s considered by OWASP as a common vulnerability, but given the sensitivity of most hidden services it is just unacceptable to leave this open on a serious HS.

On Apache you can either disable the mod_autoindex (as root, simply type a2dismod autoindex) or add a Options -Indexes directive to your root web directory:

<Directory /var/www/>
Options -Indexes
</Directory>

On Nginx, disable the autoindex module in nginx.conf file:

location /var/www/ {
autoindex off;
}

3) Disable verbose signature and error reporting

This is to ensure your server have a tiny fingerprint, no specific headers or unique version number to track you down.

3.1) Disable server-info and server-status (Apache only)

On some configuration Apache is showing by default /server-info and /server-status pages leaking internal data (such as URL requested from other users).
You can easily disable it by removing the mod_info from httpd.conf or by commenting out the 

<Location/server-info>

 and

 <Location/server-status>

directives in the configuration file.

 

3.2) Removing the server signature

This will ensure that the version of your webserver and the OS server name won’t leak in the Server header and inside default error webpages (404, 500, …).

On Apache simply add these directives your default httpd.conf file (on Debian 8 you can directly edit /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/security.conf):

ServerSignature Off
ServerTokens Prod

On Nginx, disable the server_tokens in nginx.conf:

http {
server_tokens off;
}

3.3) Disable application error reporting

This depends on the backend language you’re using (PHP, NodeJS, Python, etc.), I won’t go into the details for each on how to disable error reporting, Google is your friend. Most error reporting (stack traces, memory dumps, etc.) are likely to leak your IP address or other relevant information: disable them all! FYI, this may be how the Silk Road DMN was taken down.

 

4) Fix your flaws

Patch your god damn server (keep it up to date), write code that isn’t shit and riddled with SQL injections, and you should be fine. If you’re reading this guide and learning new sysadmins tricks, my best advice is that you should probably stay away from darknet entrepreneurship (especially darknet markets and all form of illegal activities online).

Apply some basic security measures as disabling unwanted services, respect the principle of least privilege and compartmentalize the different layers of your web applicationFor the rest, use common sense.

If it helps, you can follow some security hardening guide to tighten your configuration. Bonus points if you install grsecurity/PaX on your box.